A giant sarcoprod dinosaur that lived 85.2 million years ago

Sharing is caring!

A giant sarcoprod dinosaur that lived 85.2 million years ago. The Cretaceous Titanosa suffered from blood parasites and severe inflammation of the bones. Cretaceous period and now found in Brazil had invasive cases of osteomyelitis on its legs and soft-bodied parasitic microorganisms in its vascular canals.

Osteomyelitis in dinosaurs

Reconstruction of titanosaur life from the Upper Cretaceous Adamantine Formation in the Backcountry of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. The animal was reconstructed from the respective samples of saltsaurids in the area.

“The appearance of osteomyelitis in dinosaurs is rare, but recent studies have confirmed the appearance of this form of bone inflammation in Soropodomorpha,” said lead author Dr. Tito Aureliano. And his colleagues are from the University of Campinas, Federal University from Rio Grande.

Norte and the Federal University of São Carlos. Evidence of vertebrate fossil endometrium has already been found in invertebrate vectors conserved in coporites and amber. However, fossil parasites directly preserved in vertebrate tissues were unknown to date in the study.

The researchers looked at the fiber of an 85.2-million-year-old piece of titanosaur from the Adamantine Formation in Brazil. They used a CT scan to create a 3D model of the complete fossil. They also examined samples with petrographic and unfiltered light microscopes.

The ulcers are rebuilt on the basis of the 85.2-million-year-old deformity in the Titanosaurus fibula. They identified dozens of fossil parasites preserved within the specimen’s vascular canals, the first clear example of a parasite preserved within fossil bone tissue.

The dinosaur fibula also shows acute osteomyelitis with elliptical ulcers, which are present throughout the bone. The swelling of the bone was caused by the referred parasites or was facilitated by their infection.

For the first time, our research documents severe bone inflammation and extraordinary preservation of soft-body parasitic microorganisms within vascular canals of non-avian dinosaurs, the scientists said.

The results provide new insights into the fields of parasitology, pathology, and histology in the fossil record.” The team’s article was published in the Cretaceous Research Journal. Blood parasites and acute osteomalacia in a non-avian dinosaur (Sauropoda, Titanosauria) from the Adamantine Formation of the Upper Cretaceous, Bouru Basin, Southeastern Brazil.

It is the first in research papers to detail severe bone inflammation and extraordinary preservation of soft-body parasitic microorganisms within the vascular canals of non-avian dinosaurs. The results provide new insights into the fields of parasitology, pathology, and histology in the fossil record.

A chenyl Titanosaurus from the Upper Cretaceous of southeastern Brazil presented with acute osteomyelitis. And also identified by the presence of a highly reactive periosteum with a pattern of filaments and localized inflammation of the dome-shaped cortical tissue anterior to the medulla.

In addition, dozens of parasites were identified in the vascular channels of the parasite. The new histological knowledge resulted from the description of the development of an invasive case of osteomyelitis. The wounds were caused or paralyzed by parasitic infections.

Biographical & evolutionary history

This may be the earliest onset of parasitic-associated infectious bone disease, adding new information to the complex biographical and evolutionary history of parasitic diseases. Blood parasites and acute osteomalacia in a non-avian dinosaur (Sauropoda, Titanosauria) from the Adamantine Formation of the Upper Cretaceous, Bouru Basin, Southeastern Brazil.

It is the first in research papers to detail severe bone inflammation and extraordinary preservation of soft-body parasitic microorganisms within the vascular canals of non-avian dinosaurs. The results provide new insights into the fields of parasitology, pathology, and histology in the fossil record.

A chenyl Titanosaurus from the Upper Cretaceous of southeastern Brazil presented with acute osteomyelitis and identified by the presence of a highly reactive periosteum with a pattern of filaments and localized inflammation of the dome-shaped cortical tissue anterior to the medulla.

In addition, dozens of parasites were identified in the vascular channels of the parasite. The new histological knowledge resulted from the description of the development of an invasive case of osteomyelitis.

The wounds were caused or paralyzed by parasitic infections. This may be the earliest onset of parasitic-associated infectious bone disease, adding new information to the complex biographical and evolutionary history of parasitic diseases.

What is the largest dinosaur in the world?

The titanosaur dinosaur Dreadnautus scrani (pictured above) is the only supermassive dinosaur for which scientists have femur and humerus bones from the same person. This makes it the largest dinosaur that scientists can largely believe in. However, Argentinosaurus is possibly the largest dinosaur, found on a larger scale.

The battle for the title of the largest dinosaur in the world is complicated. Here’s why: paleontologists rarely discover a complete skeleton. They are more likely to discover a piece of bone and then try to estimate the contour from height and weight.

Additionally, there are three categories for the largest dinosaur on record: the heaviest, the tallest, and the tallest. The Argentine players who won the gold medal with the highest weight are.

This giant titanosaur (a titanosaur is a giant sauropod, a long-necked, long-tailed herbivorous dinosaur) that lived around 100 million to 93 million years ago during the Cretaceous period, is what Argentina is now you guessed it.

But Argentinosaurus weight estimates vary widely; According to the Natural History Museum in London, the animal’s weight was 77 tons (70 metric tons). According to the American Museum of Natural History in New York City, up to 90 tons (82 metric tons); And 110 tons (100 MT) according to BBC Earth.

Earth & Environment

It’s no wonder these calculations are everywhere. Argentinosaurus is known from just 13 bones: six mid-back vertebrae, five scented hip vertebrae, one tibia (shin), and one rib. There is a femur that you will see with it [in some sketches].

But that femur was found 15 kilometers [miles] away. So who knows who it belongs to? Kenneth Lakowara, professor of paleontology and geology and dean of the School of Earth and Environment at the University of Glasgow, Rovero, New Jersey.

Another contender is Patagotitán, a titanosaur that weighed 69 tons (62 MT) when it lived in Argentina about 100 million years ago. However, this weight was calculated based on a combination of individuals (six in total were found), rather than just one dinosaur, Lacovara noted.

The Patagotitan dinosaur model is larger than the display area, welcoming visitors to the museum in an elevator as they enter the room of the American Museum of Natural History in New York City. The Patagotitan dinosaur model is larger than the display area, welcoming visitors to the museum in an elevator as they enter the room of the American Museum of Natural History in New York City.

Which begs the question: How do scientists calculate the weight of an extinct animal? According to Lakovara, there are three ways. Minimum shaft circumference method: Scientists measure the minimum circumference of the humerus (upper arm bone) and femur (thigh bone) of the same person.

Then they plug these numbers into a formula. The result is highly correlated with the mass of the animal. “It makes sense,” Lacovara said. Since all quadrupeds have to put all their body weight on those four bones. The structural properties of those four bones are closely related to mass. However, there are cavitas.

If the humerus and femur were from different individuals, as they were with Pattagottan, the result is a holistic estimate of the person who never really existed, Lacovara said. Also, if only one bone (humerus or femur) is used, the proportion of missing bone is estimated.

Blueberry or shrunken

Obviously, it introduces even more uncertainty, he said. “Examples of this are Notocolosus and Paralytitan. The largest known dinosaur with a humerus and femur from the same person is the 77-million-year-old Dreadnut, a 65-ton (59-metric-ton) titanosaur that Lakovara and his team excavated in Argentina.

Volumetric method: In this approach, researchers determine the body volume of a dinosaur and use that number to calculate the weight of the animal. This is challenging, as most titanosaur skeletons are incomplete.

(Dreadnautus is the most complete, at 70 percent. Argentinosaurus is only 3.5 percent complete). In addition, the researchers must estimate how much space was in the lungs and other air-filled structures. Experts also have to guess how the skin of these dinosaurs was “blueberry or shrunken”.

In my opinion, this method is unrecoverable and lacks responsiveness, which is a hallmark of science, Lakov said. Wild Conjecture: This is how scientists have estimated the weight of dinosaurs without preserved femur or humerus bones.

Argentosaurus, Futalognacorus, and Purtasaurus are examples of this, Lacovara said. They are obviously huge, but there is no systematic, duplicable way to estimate their mass. Moving on, what is the tallest dinosaur?

The honor is likely to go to Catalocus or Mamencisaurus, which can be described as a thin, elongated surpod dinosaur, Lacovara said. Both are known to be completely skeletal, and both will be about 115 feet [35 meters] long. In contrast, Titanosaurus was small. For example, Dreadnoughtus “only” was about 85 feet (26 m) long.

But this category is still plagued with uncertainty. “Some dinosaurs claimed to be the longest fragmented ones, Lacovara said. For example, Soroposidon is only known from four vertebrae in the neck. So, really, who knows?”

A giant sarcoprod dinosaur
Sarcoprod dinosaur

 

19th century paleontologist

Meanwhile, Amphicoelias is a servopod known only from a sketch of a vertebra in a notebook by 19th century paleontologist Edward Cope, sometimes cited as the longest, tallest, and heaviest dinosaur. Lavovara said, the vertebrae were apparently lost or destroyed during transport, or perhaps they never existed.

You can’t represent a dinosaur, as far as I’m concerned Amphiliellus is not a thing. For the longest dinosaur, the winner is likely to be the Giraffetitans, a 40-foot-tall (12 m) surpode dinosaur that lived in the late Jurassic some 150 million years ago in what is now Tanzania.

As for the actual height of that dinosaur, the devil is in the details. “This, of course, depends on whether these animals can lift their necks to maximum height,” Lacovara said. “Their front bells and shoulders structure looks like they’re tilting their neck up, but we can never know to what extent they might.”

  • Is it possible to clone dinosaurs?
  • Could dinosaurs fly?
  • How do scientists know ancient things?

Editor’s Note: This article was originally published on October 10, 2012 and last updated on January 2, 2019. Additional information from Kathryn Gammon. Originally posted on Science News.

Marine researchers have discovered the largest aggregation of fish in the abyssal depths
Sarcoprod dinosaur

Largest aggregation of fish

Marine researchers have discovered the largest aggregation of fish in the abyssal depths. Marine biologists from the United States and the United Kingdom recorded more than 100 deep-sea jackfruit ales identified as Ileophis rx in a 1-kg bait pack deployed at an abyssal seamount peak in the southeastern Clarion-Clipperton area in the Middle Pacific Ocean Done.

This is the highest number of fats per kilogram of fish on record below 1,000 m (3,281 ft), including large organic falls such as sitas and shark carcasses. It is also the highest number ever recorded in the depths of a trench of any type or size.

Ilyophis arx eels gather around a small bait pack placed on the crest of an unnamed abyssal seamount in the southwest area of Clarion – Cliparton in the central Pacific Ocean. Image credit: Deep C Fish Ecology Lab, University of Hawaii.

The abyssal rim is a deep seamount whose top is 3,000 meters (9,800 feet) below sea level. They dot the shores of the deep sea and have some of the least sought-after habitats on Earth. Abyssal fish communities are very difficult to determine.

Trawls generally find less abundance than visual methods, and some studies are biased to avoid noise and light from some species. The best cameras provide an efficient and unobtrusive alternative method of viewing large numbers of deep-sea fish, scavengers and predators as they mimic the natural food where these animals naturally congregate and are part of their diet.

Form a regular part. This method uses some low-density, high-mobility, and high-sensitivity challenges to attract individuals from the surrounding area for a census in front of the camera. Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute postdoctoral researcher Drs. “Our comments have really surprised us,” Astrid Letner said.

“We have never seen such a high number of deep-sea fish populated with limited food.” Dr. Leitner and his colleagues sampled the abyssal seamounts and surrounding plains in the Clarion-Cliparton zone, a large area roughly extending from Hawaii to Mexico, with deep-sea extraction of metals such as copper, cobalt, zinc. Looking for Y manganese.

Atop one of the three previously unmapped and completely unexplored seamotes, they captured video of a flock of 115 katate eels in a small bait pack containing 1 kg of mackerel. Some eels were caught in a bait trap and Ilophis rx, a little-known species with fewer than 10 specimens, was identified in fish collections around the world.

These eels were seen on top of all seamotes, but not in the surrounding abyss. The findings provide evidence for an abyssal seamount effect (where these mountains can host a much larger number of animals than other nearby habitats) & also indicate that these eels are likely seamount specialists.

After returning from the expedition, the authors determined that they had recorded the largest number of fish ever recorded in the abyssal ocean at the same time, almost double the previous record.

Traditionally, abyss sea waves are considered low-abundance megafannel habitats with populations limited by challenging environmental conditions (low food availability, low temperatures, high pressures).

But these generalizations occur at the peak of the seam at depth from the abyss. It may not apply, he said. How can such a high number of active megafinal predators be placed in a relatively small and reasonably isolated area of the abyssal seafloor at the peak of the seamount?

“Are these permanent resident eels or these almanac aggregations?” The abyssal cement can provide unusual laboratories with a great abundance of top predators to detect the flow of carbon and the availability of energy in the food webs of the abyss.

The findings were published in Deep Sea Research

Oceanographic Research Papers Journal. The largest aggregation of fish was recorded in the abyssal deep sea. In a small bait package placed on the crest of an unnamed abyssal seamount in the southwest area of Clarion Clippen at 3,083 m, floated jackfruit ileis (Ileophis Rx, Family Cinephobranchidae).

Deep Sea Fish Ecology Lab, Astrid Littner and Jeff Drezen, Department of Oceanography, SOEST University of Hawaii Mano, DPCCZ Campaign. The largest aggregation of fish recorded in the abyssal depths was made by a team from the University of Hawaii, Manoa (UH, USA).

The Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI, USA) And the National Oceanography Center (NOC, UK). Their findings were recently published in Deep-Sea Research. “Our observation has really taken us by surprise,” said study lead author Astrid Letner, who did this work as a graduate researcher at UH Manoa’s School of Ocean and Land Science and Technology (SOAST).

There were no reports of such high numbers of populated deep-sea fish with limited food. Researchers such as Leitner, Jennifer Durden (NOC), and Professors Jeffrey Drezen (Leitner’s Ph.D. Research Advisor) and Craig Smith commented on an expedition to the Clarion Clipperton Zone (CCZ).

The CCZ is a large area stretching from Hawaii to Mexico, with exploration for deepwater mining involving metals such as copper, cobalt, zinc, and manganese. Abyssal seamounts, deep seamounts whose peaks lie 9,800 feet (3,000 m) below the sea’s surface, dot the deep shoreline and are the most sought-after habitat on the planet.

During the expedition, the research team sampled three of these veins and the surrounding plains as part of an effort to establish an ecological baseline prior to extraction activities. On the crest of one of the three previously uncharted and completely unexplored seamotes.

The team captured a flock of 115 katethe eels (Family Sinophobrichidae) in a small bait pack, with about two pounds (1 kg) of mackerel. Some eels were caught in a bait trap and Ilophis rx, a little-known species with fewer than 10 specimens, was identified in fish collections around the world.

These eels were seen on top of all seamotes, but not in the surrounding abyss. The findings provide evidence for an abyssal seamount effect. Where these mountains can host a much larger number of animals than other nearby habitats and also indicate that these eels are likely seamount specialists.

After returning from the expedition, the team determined that they had recorded the largest number of fish ever recorded in the abyssal ocean at the same time, almost double the previous record. If this phenomenon is not just the separation of these two veins in the CCZ.

Department of Oceanography

The implications for the ecology of the deep sea may be widespread, said Leitner. Now a postdoctoral researcher at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute. Our findings highlight how much remains to be explored in the deep sea and how much damage we can all suffer if we don’t manage mining properly.

The largest aggregation of fish in the abyssal depths of the sea. Jackfruit eels (Ileophis rx, Family Cinephobrinchidae) hovering in a small bait pack placed on the crest of an unnamed abyssal seamount in the southwest of the Clarion Klepian Zone at a depth of 3083 m (1.92 miles). Deep Sea Fish Ecology Lab, Astrid Littner and Jeff Drajan, Department of Oceanography, Air Manoa SOEST University, video courtesy of the DPCCZ campaign.

The largest aggregation of fish recorded in an abasanal deep sea was discovered by a team of oceanographers at Manera, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute and during 2018 by the National Center for Oceanography at the University of Hawaii.

NOAA Ocean Exploration and Research, Gordon & Betty Moore Foundation and University of Hawaii. Their findings were recently published in Deep-Sea Research. Our comments have really taken us by surprise, said lead study author Astrid Littner, who did this work as a graduate researcher at UH Maona’s School of Oceanic and Terrestrial Science and Technology (SOAST).

I have never seen such a high number of deep-sea fish populated with limited food. Researchers such as Leitner, Jennifer Durden (NOC), and Professors Jeffrey Drezen (Leitner’s Ph.D. Research Advisor) and Craig Smith commented on the Clarion Cliparton Zone (CCZ) campaign.

The CCZ is a large area stretching from Hawaii to Mexico, with exploration for deepwater mining involving metals such as copper, cobalt, zinc, and manganese. Abyssal seamounts, deep seamounts whose peaks lie 3,000 meters (9,800 feet) below the sea surface, dot the deep seas and are some of the lowest discovered habitats on the planet.

Postdoctoral researcher

During the expedition, the research team sampled three of these veins and the surrounding plains as part of an effort to establish an ecological baseline prior to extraction activities. At the top of one of three completely unexplored and uncharted seamounts.

The team captured a flock of 115 katethe eels (Family Sinophobrichidae) in a small bait pack, with about two pounds (1 kg) of mackerel. Some eels were caught in a bait trap and Ilophis rx, a little-known species with fewer than 10 specimens, was identified in fish collections around the world.

These eels were seen on top of all seamotes, but not in the surrounding abyss. The findings provide evidence for an abyssal seamount effect (where these mountains can host a much larger number of animals than other nearby habitats) and also indicate that these eels are likely seamount specialists.

After returning from the expedition, the team determined that they had recorded the largest number of fish ever recorded in the deep ocean. Almost double the previous record. If this phenomenon is not just the separation of these two veins in the CCZ.

The implications for the ecology of the deep sea may be widespread, said Leitner. Now a postdoctoral researcher at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Institute. Our findings highlight how much is yet to be explored in the deep sea and how much we can lose if we don’t manage mining properly.

The oldest known art sculptures of humans

Sculptures from the Upper Paleolithic can be linked to climate change for obese women. Obesity is rare in hunter-gatherer cultures. However, there are dozens of hand sculptures of Venus. The oldest known art sculptures of humans, obese or pregnant women, were identified with European hunter-gatherers from the Ice Age dating from 38,000 to 14,000 years ago.

The oldest known art sculptures of humans

In a new article published in the journal Obesity, a team of researchers from the University of Colorado. And the American University of Sharjah says these sculptures are most visible during glacier advance and less during glacier retreat, and obesity is highest among women closest to glaciers.

The Venus of Venkanda is an 11.1 cm (4.4 in) tall figure of Venus, estimated to have been built around 30,000 BC. C. c. At the Natural History Museum in Vienna, Austria. Known as the Aurignacians, they hunted giant reindeer, horses, and moths with bony spears. In summer they fed on berries, fish, nuts, and plants.

But until then, the weather was not stable. As the temperature dropped, the ice sheets advanced and became a mess. During the colder months, temperatures drop to 10–15 ° C (50–59 ° C).

Some bands of hunters died, some went south, some took refuge in the woods. The great game was over. Statues of Venus appeared during these desperate times. They are 6 to 16 cm (2.4 to 6.3 inches) long and are made of stone, ivory, horn, or sometimes clay.

Despite the accepted view that obesity is rare in these people, they often show realistic characteristics of obesity. Most of the sculptures are also nude, or nearly nude, which seems ironic given their proximity to the glaciers. They also focus on the torso and the head is usually faceless with small arms and legs.

Many of the sculptures are in or around childbearing age, some appear pregnant and others show abdominal obesity or increased fat on the buttocks. Some female figures are on the verge of puberty, and sculptures of middle-aged women are sometimes known. However, obesity is restricted to female idols, as well-known male statues tend to be tall and thin.

The obese idols are always women, some of whom are pregnant; Statues have long been interpreted to represent fertility or beauty; Therefore, Venus is generally adopted for idols. Study lead author Professor Richard Johnson said: Some of the oldest works of art in the world are mysterious sculptures from the time of European hunters in the Ice Age.

Where you wouldn’t expect to see obesity. University of Colorado School of Medicine. We show that these idols are related to times of extreme nutritional stress. Professor Johnson and his colleagues measured the Venus statues from waist to hip and waist to shoulder.

They found that those closest to the glacier were more obese than those farther away. They believe that idols represent an ideal body type for these difficult life situations. We propose that they explain the body size ideals of young women and especially those who live near glaciers, Professor Johnson said. We found that the body size ratio was highest when glaciers moved.

Oldest examples in the world

While obesity was reduced when the climate warmed and glaciers receded. According to the team, obesity became a desired condition. In times of pain, an obese woman can have a better child than a malnourished one who suffers during pregnancy. Therefore, idols can be considered with a spiritual meaning.

A fetish or a magical attraction that can protect a woman during pregnancy, childbirth and lactation. Many statues are worn, indicating that they were passed down from mother to daughter for generations.

It can be given to women entering puberty or early pregnancy in hopes of providing the desired body mass to ensure a successful delivery. The authors said that the increased fat would provide a source of energy for the baby during pregnancy, as well as through much-needed insulation.

The promotion of obesity ensured that the band would pass to a second generation in these uncertain climatic conditions. Researchers present a new theory about the statues of ‘Venus’. One of the oldest examples in the world, the Statue of Venus, erected some 30,000 years ago, has puzzled and baffled scientists for nearly two centuries.

Now a researcher at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus believes he has enough evidence to solve the mystery behind these curious totems. Hand drawn illustration of obese or pregnant women.

School of Medicine

Those that appear primarily in art history books were long viewed as symbols of fertility or beauty. But according to Richard Johnson, MD, lead author of the study published today in the journal, it is the key to understanding obesity, climate change and diet in figurines.

These, Johnson said, are some of the oldest works of art in the world, mysterious sculptures of overweight women dating back to the time of hunter-gatherers in Europe’s Ice Age, where you wouldn’t expect to see obesity.

Professor at the University of Colorado School of Medicine, specializing in kidney disease and high blood pressure. We show that these idols are related to times of extreme nutritional stress. The first modern humans entered Europe during a warm period, about 48,000 years ago. Known as the Aurignacians.

They hunted giant reindeer, horses, and moths with bony spears. In summer they fed on berries, fish, nuts, and plants. But until then, the weather was not stable. As the temperature dropped, the ice sheets grew and became a mess. during the cold months. The temperature dropped to 10-15 ° C. Some bands of hunters died, others moved south, some took refuge in the forests.

The great game was over. Fat statues appeared during these desperate times. They were between 6 and 16 cm long and were made of stone, ivory, horn, or sometimes clay. Some were strung and used as amulets. Johnson and his co-authors, John Fox (retired) professor of anthropology at the American University of Sharjah in the United Arab Emirates, and Miguel Lanaspa-García, PhD, associate professor of medicine.

The UC School of Medicine measured the statues from waist to hip and waist to shoulder. They found that those closest to the glaciers were thicker than those located further away. They believe that statues represent an ideal body type for these difficult life situations.

“We propose that they express the ideals of the body size of young women and especially those who live near glaciers,” said Johnson, in addition to being a doctor and an anthropologist. We found that body size ratios were highest when glaciers moved, while obesity was reduced when the climate warmed and glaciers receded. According to the researchers, obesity became a desired condition.

In times of pain, an obese woman can have a better child than a malnourished one who suffers during pregnancy. Therefore, idols can be assumed with a spiritual meaning – a fetish or a magical attraction. That can protect the woman during pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding.

Many figurines are used, indicating that they were passed down from mother to daughter from generation to generation. It can be given to women entering puberty or early pregnancy in hopes of providing the desired body mass to ensure a successful delivery.

Measurements from anthropology

The authors said that the increased fat would provide a source of energy for the baby during pregnancy, as well as through much-needed insulation. Advocating for obesity, Johnson said, ensured that the band would carry on with another generation in these more precarious weather conditions.

Johnson said the statues have emerged as a conceptual tool to enhance the fertility of mothers and newborns. Thus, significant work was done in the aesthetics of art to emphasize health and survival to adapt to increasing climatic conditions.

The team’s success in gathering evidence to support his theory comes from archaeological data and measurements from anthropology and the application of behavioral models to medical science. Johnson said these kinds of interdisciplinary approaches are gaining momentum in science and are very promising. Our team has other Ice Age art themes and also migration to their research sites.

Hits: 0

Leave a Reply

error: Content is protected !!
%d bloggers like this: