Nesher Ramla Hominin: A previously unknown type of Homo was discovered

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Nesher Ramla Hominin: A previously unknown type of Homo was discovered. The Nesher Ramla Hominin lived in the Middle East between 420,000 and 120,000 years ago and had a distinctive combination of Neanderthal (particularly teeth and jaws) and archaic Homo (especially the skull) features; They had perfectly mastered the technique that had recently been associated with Homo sapiens or Neanderthals; They were skilled hunters of small and large game, who used wood for fuel, cooked or roasted meat and kept fires.

Nesher Ramla Hominin

Fossil remains of the hominid of Nesher Ramla. Image credit: Tel Aviv University. “The discovery of a new type of Homo has scientific significance,” said the researcher, Professor Israel Hershkowitz from the Department of Anatomy and Anthropology at Tel Aviv University and the Schmunis Family Institute of Anthropology.

This allows us to better understand previously found human fossils, add another piece to the human evolution puzzle, and understand the migration of humans to the Old World. Although they lived much earlier, in the late Middle Pleistocene (474,000-130,000 years ago), the people of Nesher Ramla can tell us a fascinating story, much about the evolution and way of life of their descendants.

Professor Hershkowitz and his colleagues unearthed hominin bones and related stone tools, as well as animal bones (horse, fallow deer and aurochs) at the Nesher Ramla archaeological site in Israel. This is an extraordinary discovery, said Dr. Yossi Zaidner, a researcher at the Institute of Archeology at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and the Zinman Archaeological Institute at the University of Haifa.

We never thought that, along with Homo sapiens, archaic Homo roamed the region so late in human history. Archaeological finds involving human fossils suggest that Nesher Ramla Homo had advanced stone tool production techniques and likely interactions with local Homo sapiens.

Nesher Ramla Homo’s discovery challenges the prevailing hypothesis that the Neanderthal originated in Europe. Before these new findings, most researchers believed that Neanderthals were a European story, in which small groups of Neanderthals were forced to migrate south to escape the expanding glaciers, some reaching the Land of Israel about 70,000 years ago.

The Nesher Ramla fossils make us question this theory, suggesting that the ancestors of European Neanderthals lived in the Levant 400,000 years ago, repeatedly migrating westward to Europe and eastward to Asia. In fact, our findings imply that the famous Western European Neanderthals are just the remnants of a much larger population that lived here in the Levant, and not the other way around.

The oldest fossils showing Neanderthal features are found in Western Europe, so researchers generally assume that Neanderthals originated there, said Professor Rolf Kwam, a researcher at the Department of Anthropology at Binghamton University, UCM-ISCI Center d ‘Evolusione. And Human Behavior, and the Department of Anthropology of the American Museum of Natural History.

However, the migration of different species from the Middle East to Europe may have provided a genetic contribution to the Neanderthal gene pool during their evolution. The researchers were careful not to attribute the Nesher Ramla fossils to a new species of Homo.

Instead, he grouped them with earlier fossils from various sites in the Middle East, such as Tabun Cave (160,000 years old), Zutiyeh Cave (250,000 years old), and Qassem Cave (400,000 years old), which are hard to find. he classified them all and considered them all to represent the local population of humans who occupied the area between 420,000 and 120,000 years ago.

“People tend to think in patterns. That is why these fossils try to ascribe to human groups known as Homo sapiens, Homo Erectus, Homo heidelbergensis or Neanderthals,” says a researcher at the Schmunis Family Institute of Anthropology and the Department of Biology. Oral in Tel Aviv, said researcher Dr. Rachel Sarig. College.

But now we say: no. It is a group unto itself, which has distinctive features and characteristics. At a later stage, small groups of Neshar Ramla Homo migrated to Europe, where they evolved into the classic Neanderthals with which we are familiar, and also to Asia, where they became archaic populations with characteristics similar to those of Neanderthals.

Europe was not the exclusive refuge of Neanderthals, from where they sometimes spread to western Asia, said Professor Gerhard Weber, a researcher at the Department of Evolutionary Anthropology and the Central Facility for Microcomputed Tomography at the University of Vienna.

We believe that there was a lot of lateral exchange in Eurasia, and that the Levant is an important starting point, or at least a bridgehead, for this process geographically. The research is described in an article in the journal Science.

Meet Nesher Ramla Homo, the new primitive human discovered at an Israeli cement site. Scientists said Thursday they had discovered a new type of early human after studying fossilized bone fragments excavated from a site used by a cement plant in central Israel.

Nesher Ramla Homo

Researchers from Tel Aviv University and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem said the fragments of the lower jaw, along with the skull and teeth, were about 130,000 years old and may have forced a rethinking of parts of the human family tree.

Nesher Ramla Homo, named after the location southeast of Tel Aviv where it was found, may have lived, and even interbred, with our species, Homo sapiens, for over 100,000 years. Perhaps, based on the findings.

Early humans, who had very large teeth and no chin, may also be ancestors of Neanderthals, the study says, challenging current thinking that our evolutionary cousins ​​originated in Europe.

The discovery of a new type of Homo has scientific significance, said Israel Hershkowitz of Tel Aviv University, who is one of the leaders of the team that analyzed the remains. This allows us to better understand previously found human fossils, add another piece to the human evolution puzzle, and understand the migration of humans to the Old World.

The universities said in their statement that Dr. Yossi Jadner of the Hebrew University found the fossils during a search in the mining area of ​​the Nesher cement plant near the town of Ramla.

Tools and bones

Bulldozers discovered bones about eight meters (25 feet) deep among stone tools and horse and deer bones. The study noted that the Nesher Ramla resembled pre-Neanderthal groups in Europe.

“This is what suggests to us that this Nesher Ramla group is actually a larger group that started much earlier and is the source of the European Neanderthals,” said Hila May, a physical anthropologist at the Dan David Center and the Schmunis Institute at the Tel Aviv university.

Experts have never been able to fully explain how Homo sapiens genes were present in early Neanderthal populations in Europe, May said, and the mysterious Nesher Ramla group could be responsible.

She said that the jaw had no chin and that the skull was flat. Subsequently, the 3D shape analysis ruled out a relationship with any other known group. May said what she found was a small number of enigmatic human fossils found in other parts of Israel, dating even earlier, that anthropologists had never been able to track.

Dr. Rachel Sarig from Tel Aviv University said: “As a crossroads between Africa, Europe and Asia, the land of Israel acts as a melting pot where different human populations mix with each other, which then spreads to the Old World.”

Nesher Ramla Homo: New Types of Early Humans Found in Israel. Archaeological excavations near the city of Ramla by a team from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem have unearthed prehistoric remains that cannot match any known species of the genus Homo, which includes modern humans.

Nesher Ramla Homo

JERUSALEM: Israeli researchers said Thursday they found bones belonging to a “new type of primitive human” previously unknown to science, shedding new light on the course of human evolution. Archaeological excavations near the city of Ramla by a team from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem have unearthed prehistoric remains that cannot match any known species of the genus Homo, which includes modern humans (Homo sapiens).

In a study published in the journal Science, Tel Aviv University anthropologists and archaeologists led by Yossi Zaidner discovered a “Nasher Ramla Homo type” after the site where the bones were found. Dating between 140,000 and 120,000 years ago, “the morphology of Neshar Ramallah humans shares characteristics with both Neanderthals … and archaic Homo,” the researchers said in a statement.

Furthermore, this type of Homo is in stark contrast to modern humans who exhibit a completely different skull structure, no chin and very large teeth. Along with the human remains, the excavations yielded a large number of animal bones and stone tools.

“Archaeological discoveries involving human fossils suggest that ‘Nesher Ramla Homo’ had advanced stone tool production technologies and probable interactions with local Homo sapiens,” said archaeologist Zaidner.

We never thought that, along with Homo sapiens, archaic Homo roamed the region so late in human history. The researchers suggested that some of the fossils previously discovered in Israel, which were 400,000 years old, may be of the same prehistoric human type.

Nesher Ramla Hominin

Nesher Ramla’s discovery challenges the widely accepted theory that Neanderthals first emerged in Europe before migrating south. Our findings imply that the famous Western European Neanderthals are just the remnants of a much larger population that lived here in the Levant and not the other way around, said Tel Aviv University anthropologist Israel Hershkowitz.

Tel Aviv University dentist and anthropologist Rachel Sarig said the discovery suggests that “as a crossroads between Africa, Europe and Asia, the land of Israel acts as a melting pot where various human populations intermingled with each other, which then spread to the Old World. ” Sarig said that small groups of the Nesher Ramla type migrated to Europe, then to Neanderthals and evolved into Asia, evolving into populations with similar characteristics.

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